The formal act, generally recorded in a presentation deed, by which a patron indicates to the ordinary (normally the bishop) the name of the clergyman whom he wishes to be appointed to a benefice by institution. In certain circumstances, it lies within the power of the ordinary to reject the presentation. Such refusals, however, were uncommon and were liable to be challenged in the civil courts. In cases where the right of presentation was contested, patrons or clergy could enter a caveat, inhibiting the ordinary from instituting anyone to the benefice until the dispute was settled. These caveats are often recorded in registers, but they are not normally extracted for the CCEd.